– concentrates on clinical diagnosis using the history, anatomical localisation and physical characteristics of the swelling.
The age of the patient, the presence of pain and the mode of onset often help in diagnosis. The swelling is anatomically localised to the scrotum using the pinch test. It is imperative that the acute pain described with the onset of torsion of the testis should not be confused with epididymo-orchitis. Signs such as tenderness, consistency, transillumination and fluctuation are important.
The possibility of a malignant testicular tumour must not be overlooked.
Some basic treatments such as aspiration and excision of epididymal cysts and hydroceles are demonstrated.